This study examined the influence of gender, Familial Factor’s (Parental Assistance and Family Size) on mathematics achievement. The population of this study consists of 793 males and 334 females from 14 secondary schools of Central Uttar Pradesh (India). The Mathematics Achievement Test and A Personal and Familial Background assessment Questionnaire were used for data collection, while t-test used for statistical analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the male students as well as female students were equally good in mathematics achievement. The results revealed that parental assistance is related to performance of their children in math. The results also explained the relationship between student’s achievement and their family size. Children of smaller family size have got significantly higher achievement in math than the children of larger family size.
Key Words: Mathematics Achievement, Gender, Parental Assistance and Family Size.